Author Guidelines

Authors are required to follow these English language guidelines for submissions to NBR:

  • American English or UK English are fine as long as the complete manuscript has consistency in either English. NBR accepts submissions in English language only.
  • Please capitalize all words in headings including hyphenated words (e.g. Anti-Antagonist), except conjunctions (and, or, but, nor, yet, so, for), articles (a, an, the), and all prepositions (including those of five letters or more) (in, to, of, at, by, up, for, off, on, against, between, among, under). First and last words in the title are always capitalized. Check using (third option).
  • Define abbreviations the first time they are mentioned in the abstract, text; also the first time they are mentioned in a table or figure.
  • Keywords are not capitalized.
  • All websites need to be referenced as does unpublished data or personal communications.
  • Use the em dash (symbol 2018) instead of commas in a sentence when explaining something, for example: …from known processes—QED, the weak interaction, and hadronic vacuum polarization—are believed to be understood at the sub-ppm level.
  • Use the en dash (2017) between numbers and words replacing “to”, for example 4–6 mL; superconductor–normal metal interface; east–west transects; also in composite names, e.g. Wigner–Seitz cells.
  • Capitalize words such as Group, Section, Method, etc. if followed by a number, e.g. “In Group 4, five patients…”
  • The ‘th’ in 19th or 20th should NOT be written in superscript.
  • Dates are written out in the full, April 20, 2004 (or 20 April, 2004) rather than 20.4.04
  • Write 1990s rather than with an apostrophe (1990’s) or just 90s.
  • There is no space after > or < unless it is between two figures, i.e. 7 < 10.
  • IC50: 50 always in subscript, also EC50, LC50, LD50, TC50
  • The measurement mL: the L is always a capital.
  • For consistency, in table/figure headings put brackets round (A) (B) and make A and B bold.
  • Write don’t, can’t… in full, i.e. do not, cannot
  • Numbers 1 to 9 are written in full, except if part of a measurement (6–8 mL) or in the experimental/materials/methods section.
  • Numbers at the beginning of a sentence should be written in full, i.e. 152 mL must be written as: One hundred and fifty two milliliters.
  • A sentence should not start with But or And (use however or find alternatives).
  • There is a space after a number and before °C and units such as μL, h, min, days, but NOT before % or ° (angle).

    How to prepare your manuscript for NUST Business Review?

    Authors are required to prepare the manuscript by following these guidelines:

    Format: All files including the main manuscript, cover letter, other supporting documents be provided in Microsoft Word format. However, LaTex files can also be submitted only if the accompanying PDF files are provided. The sole PDF files will not be accepted until accompanied by the source files.

    Typing: All the manuscripts should be typed in a 11-point, Palatino Linotype font, and using double space (including references, appendices, tables, and figures). A4 sized page (8.5 x 11 inches) in a portrait type be used with a margin of 1 inch (2.54 centimeters) from top, bottom, right and left sides. All the pages be numbered and should contain a short running head (right justified).

    Title: A title should not exceed more than 17 words.

    First Name Last name 1, First Name Last name 2 and First Name Last name 2, *

    1  Affiliation 1;

    2  Affiliation 2;

    *  Correspondence:; Tel.:

    Abstract: NBR only accepts structured abstract based on the following sub-headings (*are mandatory for a structured abstract):

    • Purpose*
    • Research Design/Methodology/Approach*
    • Findings/Results/Discussion*
    • Limitations of Research/Future Recommendations
    • Theoretical/Practical/Social Implications*
    • Originality/Value*

    A maximum word count for structured abstract is 250 words (including keywords and article category). For research articles, abstracts should give an appropriate overview of the research work. Authors are strongly recommended to avoid the use of personal pronouns within the structured abstract as well as the main text in the manuscript. For example, “this study examines…” is correct, whereas “I examine… is incorrect (however, we acknowledge that qualitative work may be conducted/presented in a more personalized manner and the use of personal pronoun will be acceptable). The abstract should be an objective demonstration of the article, it must not comprise of results which are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not overstate the main conclusions.

    Key Points: Provide 3 to 4 key points of your research.

    Keywords: keyword 1; keyword 2; keyword 3 (List three to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article; yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.)

    Paper Type: All the submissions must be categorized appropriately.

    1. Authors Guidelines: the manuscript template

    The template details the sections that can be used in a manuscript. Note that each section has a corresponding style, which can be found in the ‘Styles’ menu of Word. Sections that are not mandatory are listed as such. The section titles given are for Articles. Review papers and other article types have a more flexible structure.

    Remove this paragraph and start section numbering with 1.

    Headings: Headings must be brief/concise in the appropriate place/section by keeping a clear distinction between hierarchy of all headings. The first level headings must be bold and subsequent headings in ‘italic’ for a sub-subsection add indent and without ‘italic’. For example:

    3.0 Methodology

    3.1. Subsection

    3.1.1. Sub-subsection

    Billeted lists look like this:

    • First bullet
    • Second bullet
    • Third bullet

    Numbered lists can be added as follows:

    1. First item
    2. Second item
    3. Third item

    The text continues here. Indent to start each paragraph in the manuscript.

    3.2. Figures, Tables and Schemes: All figures such as framework, charts, drawings, diagrams, webpages/ screenshots, and photographic images be submitted in electronic form and of high quality, legible and properly sequenced with numbers. Color graphics may be supplied to facilitate appearance in electronic format. 

    3.3. Formatting of Mathematical Components

    This is an example of an equation:

                            a = 1,


    the text following an equation need not be a new paragraph. Please punctuate equations as regular text.

    Notes/Endnotes/Footnotes: Any type of notes should be used only if absolutely critical and must be provided in order of numbers throughout the manuscript, enclosed in brackets [ ] and listed at the end of the page or the manuscript.

    1. Introduction

    2. Literature

    3. Review/Theory and Hypotheses Development

    4. Materials and Methods/Methodology

    5. Results

    6. Discussion

    Authors should discuss the results and how they can be interpreted in perspective of previous studies and of the working hypotheses. The findings and their implications should be discussed in the broadest context possible. Limitations and future research directions may also be highlighted.

    6. Conclusions

    A conclusion of the whole manuscript in not more than one paragraph with a maximum of 250 words be provided in this section.

    7. Patents

    If applicable, authors must provide information if there are patents resulting from the work reported in this manuscript.

    Author Contributions: For research articles with several authors, a short paragraph specifying their individual contributions must be provided. The following statements should be used “conceptualization, X.X. and Y.Y.; methodology, X.X.; software, X.X.; validation, X.X., Y.Y. and Z.Z.; formal analysis, X.X.; investigation, X.X.; resources, X.X.; data curation, X.X.; writing—original draft preparation, X.X.; writing—review and editing, X.X.; visualization, X.X.; supervision, X.X.; project administration, X.X.; funding acquisition, Y.Y.”, please turn to the CRediT taxonomy for the term explanation. Authorship must be limited to those who have contributed substantially to the work reported.

    Funding: Please add if applicable: “This research received no external funding” or “This research was funded by NAME OF FUNDER, grant number XXX”. Check carefully that the details given are accurate and use the standard spelling of funding agency names at, any errors may affect your future funding.

    Acknowledgments: Authors may acknowledge any support given which is not explained or covered in previous sections. This may include administrative and technical support, or donations in kind (e.g., materials used for experiments).

    Conflicts of Interest: Declare conflicts of interest or state “The authors declare no conflict of interest.” Authors must identify and declare any personal circumstances or interest that may be perceived as inappropriately influencing the representation or interpretation of reported research results. Any role of the funders in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results must be declared in this section. If there is no role, please state “The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results”.

    Appendix A

    The appendix is an optional section that can contain details and data supplemental to the main text. For example, explanations of experimental details that would disrupt the flow of the main text, but nonetheless remain crucial to understanding and reproducing the research shown; figures of replicates for experiments of which representative data is shown in the main text can be added here if brief, or as Supplementary data. Mathematical proofs of results not central to the paper can be added as an appendix.

    Appendix B

    All appendix sections must be cited in the main text. In the appendixes, Figures, Tables, etc. should be labeled starting with ‘A’, e.g., Figure A1, Figure A2, etc.


    References to other publications must be in APA 7th Edition Style and carefully checked for completeness, accuracy and consistency. This is very important in an electronic environment because it enables your readers to exploit the Reference Linking facility on the database and link back to the works you have cited through CrossRef.

    You should cite publications in the text: (Zhang, 2019) using the first named author’s name or (Bal and Rofcanin, 2019) citing both names of two, or (Akhtar et al., 2016), when there are three or more authors. At the end of the paper a reference list in alphabetical order should be supplied:

    For books

    Surname, Initials (year), Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication:

    e.g. Harrow, R. (2005), No Place to Hide, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY.

    For Book Chapters

    Surname, Initials (year), “Chapter title”, Editor’s Surname, Initials, Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication, pages:

    e.g. Calabrese, F.A. (2005), “The early pathways: theory to practice – a continuum”, in Stankosky, M. (Ed.), Creating the Discipline of Knowledge Management, Elsevier, New York, NY, pp. 15-20.

    For Journals

    Surname, Initials (year), “Title of article”, Journal Name, volume issue, pages.

    Akhtar, M.N., Bal, M. and Long, L., (2016). Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect reactions to frequency of change, and impact of change: a sensemaking perspective through the lens of psychological contract. Employee Relations, 38(4), pp.536-562.

    For published conference proceedings

    Surname, Initials (year of publication), “Title of paper”, in Surname, Initials (Ed.), Title of published proceeding which may include place and date(s) held, Publisher, Place of publication, Page numbers.

    e.g. Jakkilinki, R., Georgievski, M. and Sharda, N. (2007), “Connecting destinations with an ontology-based e-tourism planner”, in Information and communication technologies in tourism 2007 proceedings of the international conference in Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2007, Springer-Verlag, Vienna, pp. 12-32.

    For unpublished conference proceedings

    Surname, Initials (year), “Title of paper”, paper presented at Name of Conference, date of conference, place of conference, available at: URL if freely available on the internet (accessed date).

    e.g. Aumueller, D. (2005), “Semantic authoring and retrieval within a wiki”, paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), 29 May-1 June, Heraklion, Crete, available at: (accessed 20 February 2007).

    For working papers

    Surname, Initials (year), “Title of article”, working paper [number if available], Institution or organization, Place of organization, date.

    e.g. Moizer, P. (2003), “How published academic research can inform policy decisions: the case of mandatory rotation of audit appointments”, working paper, Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, Leeds, 28 March.

    For encyclopedia entries (with no author or editor)

    Title of Encyclopedia (year) “Title of entry”, volume, edition, Title of Encyclopedia, Publisher, Place of publication, pages.

    e.g. Encyclopaedia Britannica (1926) “Psychology of culture contact”, Vol. 1, 13th ed., Encyclopaedia Britannica, London and New York, NY, pp. 765-71.

    (For authored entries please refer to book chapter guidelines above)

    For newspaper articles (authored)

    Surname, Initials (year), “Article title”, Newspaper, date, pages.

    e.g. Smith, A. (2008), “Money for old rope”, Daily News, 21 January, pp. 1, 3-4.

    For newspaper articles (non-authored)

    Newspaper (year), “Article title”, date, pages.

    e.g. Daily News (2008), “Small change”, 2 February, p. 7.

    For archival or other unpublished sources

    Surname, Initials, (year), “Title of document”, Unpublished Manuscript, collection name, inventory record, name of archive, location of archive.

    e.g. Litman, S. (1902), “Mechanism & Technique of Commerce”, Unpublished Manuscript, Simon Litman Papers, Record series 9/5/29 Box 3, University of Illinois Archives, Urbana-Champaign, IL.

    For electronic sources

    If available online, the full URL should be supplied at the end of the reference, as well as a date that the resource was accessed.

    e.g. Castle, B. (2005), “Introduction to web services for remote portlets”, available at: (accessed 12 November 2007).

    Standalone URLs, i.e. without an author or date, should be included either within parentheses within the main text, or preferably set as a note (roman numeral within square brackets within text followed by the full URL address at the end of the paper).

    For data

    Surname, Initials (year), Title of Data Set, Name of data repository, available at: Persistent URL

    e.g. Campbell, A. and Kahn, R.L. (1999), American National Election Study, 1948, ICPSR07218-v3, Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (distributor), Ann Arbor, MI, available at: